Where concrete is exposed to air, carbonation of the cement matrix will gradually advance from the surface. This is a slow process in good quality concrete and is of little consequence unless embedded ferrous metal i.e. reinforcing steel is present in the carbonated zone. The following note describes carbonation and how it is measured.
Published: April 2016. Revised March 2019
For 40% discount on this publication, enter your Concrete Society membership number in the coupon field at checkout.